Astronauts participating in tropical survival training at an Air Force Base near the Panama Canal, 1963. From left to right are an unidentified trainer, Neil Armstrong, John H. Glenn Jr., L. Gordon Cooper, and Pete Conrad. Survival training is important for astronauts, as a launch abort or misguided reentry could potentially land them in a remote wilderness area.
Survival skills are techniques that a person may use in order to sustain life in any type of natural environment or built environment. These techniques are meant to provide basic necessities for human life which include water, food, and shelter. The skills also support proper knowledge and interactions with animals and plants to promote the sustaining of life over a period of time. Survival skills are often associated with the need to survive in a disaster situation. Survival skills are often basic ideas and abilities that ancients invented and used themselves for thousands of years. Outdoor activities such as hiking, backpacking, horseback riding, fishing, and hunting all require basic wilderness survival skills, especially in handling emergency situations. Bushcraft and primitive living are most often self-implemented, but require many of the same skills.
- 1 First aid
- 2 Shelter
- 3 Fire
- 4 Water
- 5 Food
- 6 Navigation
- 7 Mind preparedness
- 8 Urban survival
- 8.1 Earthquake
- 9 Important survival items
- 10 Common questionable survival skills
- 11 See also
- 12 References
- 13 Further reading
- 14 External links
Main article: Wilderness medical emergency
A first aid kit containing equipment to treat common injuries and illness
First aid (wilderness first aid in particular) can help a person survive and function with injuries and illnesses that would otherwise kill or incapacitate him/her. Common and dangerous injuries include:
- Bites from snakes, spiders and other wild animals
- Bone fractures
- Heart attack
- Hypothermia and hyperthermia
- Infection through food, animal contact, or drinking non-potable water
- Poisoning from consumption of, or contact with, poisonous plants or poisonous fungi
- Sprains, particularly of the ankle
- Wounds, which may become infected
The survivor may need to apply the contents of a first aid kit or, if possessing the required knowledge, naturally occurring medicinal plants, immobilize injured limbs, or even transport incapacitated comrades.
Main article: Bivouac shelter
Shelter built from tarp and sticks. Pictured are displaced persons from the Sri Lankan Civil War
Many people who are forced into survival situations often have risk of danger because of direct exposure to the elements. Most people in survival situations die of hypo/hyperthermia, or animal attacks. A shelter can range from a natural shelter, such as a cave, overhanging rock outcrop, or fallen-down tree, to an intermediate form of man-made shelter such as a debris hut, tree pit shelter, or snow cave, to completely man-made structures such as a tarp, tent, or longhouse. It is noted that some common properties between these structures are:
- Location (away from hazards, such as cliffs, and nearby materials, like food sources)
Insulation (from ground, rain, wind, air, or sun)
Heat Source (either body heat or fire-heated)
Personal or Group Shelter (having multiple individuals)
Fire is a combustion reaction between oxygen and fuel that typically produces heat, light and smoke. The resulting heat from the reaction can postpone or prevent the risk of hypothermia. Lighting a fire without a lighter or matches, e.g. by using natural flint and a rock or metal with tinder, is a frequent subject of both books on survival and in survival courses, often due to the lack of said materials if an individual was stranded. There is an emphasis placed on practicing fire-making skills before venturing into the wilderness. Producing fire under adverse conditions has been made much easier by the introduction of tools such as the solar spark lighter and the fire piston.
Fires are either started with a concentration of heat, as in the case of the solar spark lighter, or through a spark, as in the case of flint striking a rock or metal. Fires will often be put out if either there is excessive wind (such as either over fanning a fire, or strong winds), or if the fuel or environment is too wet to ignite.
An example of a fire starting technique involves using a black powder firearm if one is available. Proper gun safety is to be known with this technique to avoid potential injury or death. The technique involves ramming cotton cloth or wadding down the barrel of the firearm until the cloth is against the powder charge. Next, the gun is fired upwards to avoid hitting oneself, then one proceeds to run and pick up the cloth that is projected out of the barrel, and then blows it into flame. It works better if there is a supply of tinder at hand so that the cloth can be placed against it to start the fire.
Fire is presented as a tool meeting many survival needs. Along with the need that’s mentioned above, it also disinfects water (through boiling and condensing), and can be used to cook and prevent illnesses in foods like animal meat. Another advantage that is presented through fire is an underlooked psychological boost through the sense of safety and protection it gives. In the wild, fire can provide a sensation of home, a focal point, in addition to being an essential energy source. Fire may deter wild animals from interfering with an individual, however wild animals may be attracted to the light and heat of a fire.
Hydration pack manufactured by Camelbak
A human being can survive an average of three to five days without the intake of water. The issues presented by the need for water dictate that unnecessary water loss by perspiration be avoided in survival situations. The need for water increases with exercise. Since the human body is composed of up to 89% water, it should be no surprise that water is higher on the list than fire or food. Ideally, a person should drink about a gallon of water per day. Many lost persons perish due to dehydration, and/or the debilitating effects of water-born pathogens from untreated water.
A typical person will lose minimally two to maximally four liters of water per day under ordinary conditions, and more in hot, dry, or cold weather. Four to six liters of water or other liquids are generally required each day in the wilderness to avoid dehydration and to keep the body functioning properly. The U.S. Army survival manual does not recommend drinking water only when thirsty, as this leads to underhydrating. Instead, water should be drunk at regular intervals. Other groups recommend rationing water through “water discipline”.
A lack of water causes dehydration, which may result in lethargy, headaches, dizziness, confusion, and eventually death. Even mild dehydration reduces endurance and impairs concentration, which is dangerous in a survival situation where clear thinking is essential. Dark yellow or brown urine is a diagnostic indicator of dehydration. To avoid dehydration, a high priority is typically assigned to locating a supply of drinking water and making provision to render that water as safe as possible.
Recent thinking is that boiling or commercial filters are significantly safer than use of chemicals, with the exception of chlorine dioxide.
Culinary root tubers, fruit, edible mushrooms, edible nuts, edible beans, edible cereals or edible leaves, edible moss, edible cacti and algae can be gathered and, if needed, prepared (mostly by boiling). With the exception of leaves, these foods are relatively high in calories, providing some energy to the body. Plants are some of the easiest food sources to find in the jungle, forest or desert because they are stationary and can thus be had without exerting much effort.
Skills and equipment (such as bows, snares and nets) are necessary to gather animal food in the wild include animal trapping, hunting, and fishing.
Focusing on survival until rescued by presumed searchers, the Boy Scouts of America, or BSA, especially discourages foraging for wild foods on the grounds that the knowledge and skills needed are unlikely to be possessed by those finding themselves in a wilderness survival situation, making the risks (including use of energy) outweigh the benefits.
Celestial navigation: using the Southern Cross to navigate South without a compass
Those going for trips and hikes are advised by Search and Rescue Services to notify a trusted contact of their planned return time, then notify them of your return. They can tell them to contact the police for search and rescue if you have not returned by a specific time frame (e.g. 12 hours of your scheduled return time).
Survival situations can often be resolved by finding a way to safety, or a more suitable location to wait for rescue. Types of navigation include:
- Celestial navigation, using the sun and the night sky to locate the cardinal directions and to maintain course of travel
- Using a map, compass or GPS receiver
- Dead reckoning
- Natural navigation, using the condition of surrounding natural objects (i.e. moss on a tree, snow on a hill, direction of running water, etc.)
The mind and its processes are critical to survival. The will to live in a life-and-death situation often separates those that live and those that do not. Situations can be stressful to the level that even trained experts may be mentally affected. One should be mentally and physically tough during a disaster.
To the extent that stress results from testing human limits, the benefits of learning to function under stress and determining those limits may outweigh the downside of stress. There are certain strategies and mental tools that can help people cope better in a survival situation, including focusing on manageable tasks, having a Plan B available and recognizing denial.
In a building collapse, it is advised that you:
- Seek protection under a structure like a table
- Cover your mouth with your shirt to filter out dust
- Use your phone light to signal for help, or call
- Don’t move till you are sure something wouldn’t topple on you
Important survival items
Civilian pilots attending a Survival course at RAF Kinloss learn how to construct shelter from the elements, using materials available in the woodland on the north-east edge of the aerodrome.
Main article: Survival kit
Often survival practitioners will carry with them a “survival kit”. This consists of various items that seem necessary or useful for potential survival situations, depending on anticipated challenges and location. Supplies in a survival kit vary greatly by anticipated needs. For wilderness survival, they often contain items like a knife, water container, fire starting apparatus, first aid equipment, food obtaining devices (snare wire, fish hooks, firearms, or other,) a light, navigational aids, and signalling or communications devices. Often these items will have multiple possible uses as space and weight are often at a premium.
Survival kits may be purchased from various retailers or individual components may be bought and assembled into a kit.
Common questionable survival skills
Some survival books promote the “Universal Edibility Test”. Allegedly, it is possible to distinguish edible foods from toxic ones by a series of progressive exposures to skin and mouth prior to ingestion, with waiting periods and checks for symptoms. However, many experts including Ray Mears and John Kallas reject this method, stating that even a small amount of some “potential foods” can cause physical discomfort, illness, or death.
Many mainstream survival experts have recommended the act of drinking urine in times of dehydration and malnutrition. However, the United States Air Force Survival Manual (AF 64-4) instructs that this technique is a myth and should never be applied. Several reasons for not drinking urine include the high salt content of urine, potential contaminants, and sometimes bacteria growth, despite urine’s being generally “sterile”.
Many classic cowboy movies, classic survival books and even some school textbooks suggest that sucking the venom out of a snake bite by mouth is an appropriate treatment and/or also for the bitten person to drink their urine after the poisonous animal bite or poisonous insect bite as a mean for the body to provide natural anti-venom. However, venom can not be sucked out and it may be dangerous for a rescuer to attempt to do so. Modern snakebite treatment involves pressure bandages and prompt medical treatment.
- Distress signal
- Mini survival kit
- Ten Essentials
- Alone (TV show)
- Mountaineering: The Freedom of the Hills; 8th Ed; Mountaineers Books; 596 pages; 1960 to 2010; ISBN 978-1594851384.
- Survival at Curlie
- The short film Aircrew Survival: Cold Land Survival is available for free download at the Internet Archive
- The short film Aircrew Survival: Hot Land Survival is available for free download at the Internet Archive
- The short film Aircrew Survival: Survival Kits, Rafts, Accessories is available for free download at the Internet Archive
- The short film Aircrew Survival: Survival Medicine is available for free download at the Internet Archive
- The short film Aircrew Survival: Surviving on Open Water is available for free download at the Internet Archive
- The short film Aircrew Survival: Survival Signalling is available for free download at the Internet Archive
- The short film Aircrew Survival: Tropical Survival is available for free download at the Internet Archive
- The short film Aircrew Survival: The Will to Survive is available for free download at the Internet Archive