Survival kit

Emergency equipment

Cosmonaut survival kit at the Moscow Polytechnic Museum
Sailors take inventory of the C-2A greyhound life raft kit at the USS Kitty Hawk (CV 63) paraloft store
A survival kit is a set of basic tools and supplies prepared as an emergency survival aid. Civilian and military aircraft, lifeboats, and spaceships are equipped with survival kits.

Survival kits of various sizes contain supplies and tools that provide a survivor with basic shelter from the elements, help them keep warm, meet basic health and first aid needs, provide food and water, signal rescuers, and help find a way back to help. The supplies in a survival kit usually contain a knife (often a Swiss army knife or multi-purpose tool), matches, tinder, a first aid kit, a handkerchief, hooks, a sewing kit, and a flashlight.

Civilians, such as forest workers, surveyors, or bush pilots working in remote locations or in regions with extreme weather conditions, can also be equipped with survival kits. People living in areas prone to earthquakes or other natural disasters also have disaster materials at hand. For the average citizen to practice disaster preparedness, some cities will have survival stores to keep survival supplies in stock.

The American Red Cross recommends an emergency preparedness kit that is easy to carry and use in the event of an emergency or disaster.

General 

The total content of the emergency survival kit depends on the location. The building blocks of the survival kit meet the needs of first aid, food, water, shelter, navigation, and signage.[2]

Shelter and warmth

It is recommended to use different materials for emergency shelters, and they vary depending on geographical regions. Variants often included in survival kits may consist of:

Reflective “aluminized” (Mylar coating) space blanket or survival blanket to retain body heat (and signal)
Lightweight poncho for wind and rain protection (and for collecting rain)
“Tube Store” or bivouac bag
Canvas with grommets or tie bands (better if nylon or polyester)
A large plastic garbage bag, such as a poncho, a comfortable roof, or a raincoat
Ferrocerium bar (also known as “metal phosphorus”, “hot Spark”, “Firesteel”,” magnesium fire starter”) and fire front for fire starter, fire piston or solar spark lighter
Waterproof matches or lighter
Cotton balls or gaskets painted with vaseline for fire fighting (can be carried in a 35mm film container, zippered bag, or heat-sealed inside a large-diameter plastic straw)
Catalytic heater and bottled gas fuel
The emergency sleeping bag is perfect for shelter and warmth
Health and first aid

First aid kits will often include a combination of the following:

Bandages, such as sterile combination bandages and gauze pads
Adhesive tape and gauze tape or disinfectant pads
30-day supply of personal prescription drugs
Antibiotic cream / rubbing alcohol
Burn the cream
Aspirin
Sunscreen (in your case, above 30 SPF)
100% UV (“UV 400”) protective sunglasses (protects the eyes from harmful UV radiation. Polarized glasses are not necessarily UV protective, but help with glare only)
Surgical suture (for sewing important WOUNDS)
Food and water

Most survival kits include sustenance for short periods of time, which will be used and replaced before the contents deteriorate.

Water in sealed containers for dry rooms or water purification tablets or household bleach in places where water is available but may be contaminated. For emergency water purification, see: methods of water purification
The dining room is filled with water and a filter, if necessary
Durable aluminum foil to create a distillation tube to remove salt from salt water during boiling / condensation. You must have another container to collect the condensate.
Canned food, ready-to-eat meals (MRE), high-energy foods such as chocolate or emergency food bars, or dry foods such as dried fruits, cereals, nuts, or fried grams
Fishing line and equipment (hooks, lures and split cords)
Trap Cable
Gill nets (for emergency fishing)
The tip of the spear (for fish and other small animals)
Alarm, navigation and reference

US Navy aircraft pointing at the aircraft with a signal mirror.
Since the main purpose of the survival kit for lost or injured people is to save them, this part of the kit can be considered the most important. Key elements for the salvation of include:

Radiobeacon disasters
The whistle
Signal Mirror
High-power LED light (able to replace batteries and carry an additional battery), white lens, with signal capabilities. Strobe versions are available for some lights. Use lithium cells only, due to superior lifespan.
Flash: The three lights in the triangle are an international
distress laser pointer (or green laser) with lithium batteries, for a higher alarm range. Laser pointers have led to at least one rescue: on the night of August 2010, two men and a boy were rescued from swamps after their red laser pen was discovered by rescuers.[3]
Surveyor’s ribbon-orange or chartreuse to mark the spot for rescuers
Pen / pencil and paper to leave notes to rescuers about the direction of travel
Compass. The analog clock can also be used to determine the orientation when the sun is visible-view the direction search using the clock
Maps / graphs of trails ( if the location is known in advance)
Survival Guide for Technical Reference
A glow stick
Multi-purpose tools or materials

The survival kit tools emphasize portability and versatility. Recommended tools for many types of survival kit include:

Arc saws are about 24 inches (61 cm) long and are light and quick to cut.
Small portable Snow Peak stove, powered by MSR gas and a carrying case for the stove

A knife with a fixed blade or a multi-tool, such as a Swiss army knife.
A can opener, such as a P-38 or P-51
Heavy Duty Needle and Thread for Clothing and Equipment repair
Red or orange plastic bags or garbage bags
Durable cord or parachute cord “550” for installing tarpaulins and catching small animals
An axe with a scabbard for cold conditions or a machete for tropical conditions (shelter and fire)
A camp stove or some kind of gas and fuel burner, such as bottled propane or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)
Candles for lighting, signage, and starting fires. Candles made from edible materials such as sebum or beeswax can also be used as a source of calories.
Metal billycan or “water bottle” for water storage, boiling, cleaning, cooking
Compact saw, such as a Japanese-style rear saw with thick teeth (folding models available). Arc saws can quickly cut off larger diameter limbs and thick small to medium-sized trees, and folding saws can be small enough to fit in a kit, but large enough to cut off small to medium-diameter limbs and possibly smaller trees.
Solar Charger
Hard Hat
Handkerchief or scarf
Bulletproof armor (for example, a soft bulletproof vest for pistol calibers). This can be used for protection in urban environments. Bulletproof armor can be placed on the carrier and worn on the body, or it can be inserted into a bag or backpack.
Lifeboat Survival Equipment

Lifeboat survival kits are stowed in inflatable or rigid lifeboats or life rafts; the contents of these kits are mandated by coast guard or maritime regulations. These kits provide basic survival tools and supplies to enable passengers to survive until they are rescued. In addition to relying on lifeboat survival kits, many mariners will assemble a “ditch bag” or “abandon ship bag” containing additional survival supplies. Lifeboat survival kit items typically include:

Safety equipment

  • Life jackets
  • First aid kit
  • Fire extinguisher
  • Bucket

Communications and navigation

  • Compass
  • Distress beacons or (EPIRBs) to alert the Cospas-Sarsat rescue consortium, an international satellite-based search and rescue distress alert agency and identify the registered beacon owner’s specific information from their registration file
  • Red flare, rocket parachute flare, and/or smoke signal flare
  • Laser pointer for signaling aircraft (red is color of distress, but green color is higher power and will be seen farther), with lithium cells, in double waterproof plastic pouch (pointers of high power are a theoretical hazard to eyes of low-flying pilots at night)
  • Radar reflector (to help rescuers locate the raft)
  • Lighter
  • Lantern and fuel, the fuel doubles as firestarter
  • Radio transceiver, standard VHF marine when operating near inland shore, 121.5 MHz AM VHF guard channel capable aircraft band transceiver to contact rescuers and high overflying commercial and military aircraft visible by contrails, an optional amateur radio if a licensed radio amateur, (see Ham Radio) or an AM/FM/Weather/Shortwave radio receiver to receive precise time for celestial navigation as well as weather information
  • GPS navigation device

Food and water

  • A knife, multi-tool, and/or Swiss army knife
  • Fishing kit
  • Rainwater collection equipment
  • Seawater desalination kit
  • Water (typically 3 liters/person/day)
  • Emergency high-calorie rations/food (not as important as water). Chocolate has a superior calorie/weight ratio
  • Hatchet

Other tools and boating items

  • Waterproof flashlight
  • Heaving line
  • Ladder
  • Bailer
  • Bilge pump
  • Boat hook
  • Sea anchor (also called a “sea drogue”)

Military kits

Survival kits for military pilots often change depending on the operating conditions:

In desert areas, survival kits may contain more water and sunscreen, as well as additional items such as shadow hats, a compass, a whistle, medical equipment, tinder, matches, and sunglasses.
In tropical areas, the survival kit may contain mosquito nets, additional insect repellent, antifungal cream, machete, water purification tablets, foot powder, matches, flint awl, compass, wire saw, space blanket, medical equipment (gauze pads, elastic gauze bandage, antiseptic creams, anti-malarial tablets, antifungal tablets, bandages, etc.), salt tablets, fishing kit, silky, extra socks, Sail, signal mirror, flares, sewing kit, sewing pins.security, tinder, tape, whistle.. and welds.
In Arctic or alpine areas, survival kits may contain additional cold weather clothing (winter hats and gloves), sleeping bags, bags of chemical” hand warmers”, sunglasses/snow goggles, snowshoes, a folding shovel, small animal silage, a frying pan, a camping stove, fuel for a camping stove, a space blanket, matches, a whistle, a compass, tinder, medical equipment, a flint awl, a wire saw, extra socks, and a tent designed for use in the Arctic.
For personnel flying over large bodies of water, in addition to wearing a rescue suit over cold water, the survival kit may include additional items such as a small self-inflating raft to take the pilot out of cold or predator-infested water, flotation vests, sea anchor, fishing nets, fishing equipment, fluorescent marine paint, pyrotechnic signals, a rescue radio and/or beacon, an emergency marker previously replaced by a flashing strobe light., The seawater desalination kit[5] or chemical desalination device is now replaced by a manual reverse osmosis desalination device (MRD) for seawater desalination, raft repair kit, paddle, bailer and sponge, sunscreen, medical equipment, whistle, compass and sun hat.

Use a few basic survival kits, mostly for airmen, some of which are stored in carry-on bags. Pilots on aircraft with ejection seats have survival kits on the vest and seat tray, the survival vest used by American helicopter crews also contains some basic survival elements.

Spacecraft Kits

Astronauts are equipped with survival kits because of the difficulty of predicting where the spacecraft will land on its return to Earth, especially if the equipment fails. In the first American space flights, the kit was optimized for survival at sea; One, provided to John Glenn during the first American orbital spaceflight on Friendship 7, contained “a life raft, pocket knife, signal mirror, shark repellent, seawater desalination tablets, sunscreen, soap, first aid kit, and other items.”[6] A survival kit was provided for the Apollo program, which was”… designed to provide 48-hour survivability after landing (on water or land) for three crew members between 40 degrees north and south latitude.”It contained ” a survival radio, a survival reflector unit, desalination kits, a machete, sunglasses, water cans, suntan lotion, a blanket, a pocket knife, a net, and foam pads.”]

The kits, designed for Soviet and Russian cosmonauts, are optimized for survival in the temperate and subarctic mountains, forests and meadows in the east of the country. The Soyuz kits include ” food rations, water bottles, warm clothing, a rope for creating a shelter with a parachute capsule, fishing hooks, and various other survival equipment.” The cosmonaut survival pistol TP-82 was designed to protect against predators such as wolves or bears. It was capable of firing conventional bullets, shotguns, and flares; the folding stock could be used as a shovel, as well as having a folding machete.[9]

Mini Survival Kits

Main Item: Mini Survival Kit
“Mini Survival Kits” or “altoids tin” survival kits are small kits containing some basic survival tools. These kits often include a small compass, waterproof matches, a minimum of fishing gear, a large plastic bag, a small candle, a puzzle blade, a craft knife or scalpel, and/or a pin. Pre-packaged survival kits may also include instructions on survival techniques, including shooting or first aid techniques. In addition, the parachute cord can be wrapped around the jar. The parachute cord can be used to create an emergency shelter or catch small animals. They are designed to be placed in a container the size of a mint jar.

Fire preparation kit contained in tin
Other small sets are portable and built into everyday wristbands or survival belts. Most often, these are bracelets made of paracord with tools intertwined inside. Various tools, such as a lighter, buckles, whistles, and compass, are found on the outside of the equipment, while smaller tools are woven into the jewelry or belt and are only accessible when the bracelet is disassembled.

Light survival kits are generally considered a backup survival tool; however, these kits can be extensive and include tools commonly found in larger kits as survival technologies evolve. Examples of these tools are high-powered flashlights, high-speed saws, signaling devices such as mini-signaling mirrors, and water purification methods.

Car Kits

Another level in some preparedness plans are vehicle kits. In some cases, supplies and equipment may be loaded into a vehicle such as a van or truck with bicycle racks and an additional “backup” gas tank. Some survivors also carry a small off-road motorcycle (for example, 250 cc. see) in a van or truck.

Bug’s food supplies include hundreds of pounds of wheat, rice, and beans, as well as enough honey, milk powder, canned food, bottled fruit, vitamins, dehydrated fruits and vegetables, salt, pepper, spices, and oil for several months. In addition, the kits often contain high-calorie energy bars, a cooking kit, dishes, liquid soap, and towels. The water supply may include bottled water, a set of filters, bottles, collapsible water containers, and chlorine bleach for water purification. Cooking and washing equipment may include items such as a grain grinder, bread grinder, colander, hand can opener, steam can with cans and O-rings, cutlery, knives, 12-volt electric refrigerator, kerosene lamps and heaters, kerosene or propane stoves, additional fuel, a laundry juicer, a sewing machine with a pedal, and an electric stove (an inverter will be required to work with a car battery).

Medical supplies may include a pressure gauge, stethoscope, scissors, tweezers, tweezers, disposable scalpels, two thermometers (oral and rectal), inflatable splints, bandages, stitches, duct tape, gauze, burn ointment, antibiotic ointment, aspirin, alcohol, ipecac syrup, sterile water, cotton rags, soap, and cotton swabs.

Vehicles may include bicycles with off-road tires and suspension, emergency tools and spare parts (such as fuses, fan belts, light bulbs, head light, tire pump, etc.), and an inflatable raft with paddles.

In addition, the kits may contain typical “survival kit” items, such as nylon tarp, extra clothing and coats, blankets, sleeping bags, matches or other fire fighting equipment, compass and maps, flashlights, toilet paper, soap, pocket knife and hunting knife, fishing kit, portable camping stove, inverter, backpack, paper and pencil, signal mirror, whistle, cable saw, bleach, insect repellent, magnifying glass, nylon rope and cord, pulleys, pistol, etc.ammunition.

Communication equipment may include a multi-band receiver / scanner, a citizens band (CB) radio, portable “walkie-talkies” with rechargeable batteries, and a portable battery-powered TV. Power sources may include a diesel or gasoline generator with a monthly fuel supply, an automatic battery and charger, an extension cord, flashlights, rechargeable batteries (with a charger), an electric multimeter, and a warning lamp. Protective items include a revolver, semi-automatic pistol, rifle, shotgun, ammunition, mace or pepper can, and a large knife such as a Ka-bar or hunting knife.

Tools may include cutting tools such as saws, axes and hatchets; mechanical advantage aids such as a pry bar or wrecking bar, ropes, pulleys, or a ‘come-a-long” hand-operated winch; construction tools such as pliers, chisels, a hammer, screwdrivers, a hand-operated twist drill, vise grip pliers, glue, nails, nuts, bolts, and screws; mechanical repair tools such as an arc welder, an oxy-acetylene torch, a propane torch with a spark lighter, a solder iron and flux, wrench set, a nut driver, a tap and die set, a socket set, and a fire extinguisher. As well, some survivalists bring barterable items such as fishing line, liquid soap, insect repellent, light bulbs, can openers, extra fuels, motor oil, and ammunition.

Natural Disasters

The U.S. government’s national security website provides a list of home emergency kit items.The list focuses on the basics of survival: fresh water, food, clean air, and materials to keep the body warm. These basic survival items included in the kit are known as the bug bag. The recommended basic elements of the emergency kit include:

Water, at least one gallon of water per person for each day for drinking and sanitation (should be rotated every 3 months)
Food, non-perishable food for at least three days that should not be cooked or refrigerated
Emergency food bars, preferably foods with 2,400 or 3,600 calories and do not contain coconut or tropical oils, to which many people may have an allergic reaction, in addition to non-perishable foods that do not require cooking or cooling
Battery-powered radio or manual radio with weather range
LED type flashlight (battery or manual-powered)
Additional batteries For anything that needs them, the lithium type is preferred for a lifetime.
First aid kit
Copies of any doctor’s prescription
The whistle
Dust mask, plastic film and adhesive tape for in-place protection
Wet wipes, garbage bags, and plastic loops for personal sanitation
Wrench or pliers for shutting off water valves
Can opener for canned food
Local maps
Spare keys for household and motor vehicles
Durable and comfortable shoes and a lightweight raincoat
Contact information and meeting place for the home
Earthquake[edit / edit code]

The following is a list of commonly recommended items for an earthquake emergency kit:

Food and water to last at least three to five days[11] [12]
Water Purification Tablets / Portable Water Filter
Heavy Duty Gloves
First aid kit
A minimum of $ 100 in cash, at least half of which must be in small denominations
Family photos and descriptions (to help emergency personnel find the missing)
Copies of personal identification cards and important documents such as insurance documents, driver’s licenses, etc.
One flashlight (LED type for greatest efficiency) and radio
Additional batteries (lithium type for longer service life).
Glasses and dust mask
Personal chest of drawers with sanitary bags
Water: one gallon per person per day
Hurricane[edit]

For hurricanes, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) recommends that the “disaster bag” include: [13]

A flashlight with spare batteries and
Portable radio with battery power (and spare batteries);
NOAA Weather Radio with Battery Power (and Spare Batteries);
“Self-powered radio” and “Self-powered flashlight”. First, the Eaton model has a weather band and is “autonomous”. Some of them will keep your mobile phone charged
First aid kit and manual;
Prescription medications (be sure to fill them out after they expire);
Cash and credit card;
Mobile phone with a fully charged spare battery;
Spare keys;
High-energy non-perishable products;
One warm blanket or sleeping bag per person;
Special items for children, the elderly or disabled family members;
Change of clothes.
Survival Backpacks

Main Article: Bug bag
The term “survival kit” can also refer to larger and more portable survival kits prepared by survivors, called” bug bags “(BOB), “personal emergency relocation kits” (PERK), or “Dodge exit” (good ones) the kits, which are Packed into backpacks, or even a canvas bag. These kits are specially designed for easier human transport in the event that alternative forms of transport are not available or impossible to use.

These bags contain materials such as food, water treatment equipment, clothing, medical equipment, communication equipment, and tools.

See also
Bothy Bag
Community emergency response team
Uruguay Air Force Flight 571
Camping equipment
Mini Survival Equipment
Survival skills
Survival
Ten basic elements

References

<li>^ "Be Red Cross Ready - Get a kit. Make a plan. Be informed". Redcross.org. Archived from the original on 2011-11-18. Retrieved 2011-11-26..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes:"""""""'""'"}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-free a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a{background-image:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png");background-image:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/65/Lock-green.svg");background-repeat:no-repeat;background-size:9px;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .id-lock-registration a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a{background-image:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png");background-image:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg");background-repeat:no-repeat;background-size:9px;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-subscription a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a{background-image:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png");background-image:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg");background-repeat:no-repeat;background-size:9px;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background-image:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png");background-image:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg");background-repeat:no-repeat;background-size:12px;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .citation .mw-selflink{font-weight:inherit}</li>
<li>^ "What Should Be in a Survival Backpack?". The Smart Survivalist Blog. 2019-12-28. Retrieved 2020-04-19.</li>
<li>^ "UK Marine and Coastguard Agency". Nds.coi.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 2011-12-29. Retrieved 2011-11-26.</li>
<li>^ "Doomsday Prepping". www.doomsdaynews.com. September 23, 2013. Archived from the original on January 2, 2014. Retrieved 2013-12-25.</li>
<li>^ "Sea Water Still." Archived 2013-05-11 at the Wayback Machine Popular Mechanics, February 1952, p. 113.</li>
<li>^ "Survival Kit, Friendship 7 (MA-6)". airandspace.si.edu. Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum. Archived from the original on 2016-12-20. Retrieved 10 December. Check date values in: |access-date= (help)</li>
<li>^ "Apollo 11 Lunar Landing Mission Press Kit" (PDF). www.hq.nasa.gov. NASA. Archived (PDF) from the original on 16 November 2016. Retrieved 10 December 2016. (p. 135)</li>
<li>^ "Rucksack #1, Survival Kit, Apollo 15". airandspace.si.edu. Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum. Archived from the original on 2017-08-25. Retrieved 10 December. Check date values in: |access-date= (help)</li>
<li>^ Oberg, James (12 February 2012). "Russia has the corner on guns in space". www.nbcnews.com. NBC News. Archived from the original on 7 January 2017. Retrieved 10 December 2016.</li>
<li>^ Basic Disaster Supplies Kit Archived 2016-08-01 at the Wayback Machine</li>
<li>^ County of Sonoma Emergency Preparedness Archived 2014-10-15 at the Wayback Machine "Emergency Responders may be unable to reach all citizens for various reasons and therefore it is essential that individuals and neighborhoods be prepared to be on their own for a minimum of 3 to 5 days."</li>
<li>^ GetReadyBerkeley Archived 2015-05-12 at the Wayback Machine "Experts tell us that each household should plan to be without outside resources for 3-5 days in a major catastrophe."</li>
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Further reading[edit]

  • Mountaineering: The Freedom of the Hills; 8th Ed; Mountaineers Books; 596 pages; 1960 to 2010; ISBN 978-1594851384.

External links[edit]

  • Prepare for Disasters Before they Strike: Build A Disaster Supplies Kit by the American Red Cross
  • Assemble a Disaster Supplies Kit by the U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)


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